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Page of a 12th century Qur’an written in the in the Andalusi script.



Page of a 12th century Qur’an written in the in the Andalusi script.


The Diwani Script

 [below] is a cursive style of Arabic calligraphy developed during the reign of the early Ottoman Turks (16th and early 17th centuries). It was invented by Housam Roumi and reached its height of popularity under Süleyman I the Magnificent (1520–66). As decorative as it was communicative, Diwani was distinguished by the complexity of the line within the letter and the close juxtaposition of the letters within the word

Diwani script

a cursive style of Arabic calligraphy



Arabic Calligraphy decorated Islamic fabrics These decorations were also symbols. The Arabic calligraphy that decorated royal fabrics, which is called Tiraz, had political references to the names of caliphs, rulers, and sultans. These inscriptions represented important signs of a ruler’s power in the Middle Ages and some were entreaties to God.

The white, grey, and brown printed linen [Flax] fragment is decorated with a Naskh inscription band on a background of foliage. The letters have animal-like finials, or endings, such as lions, hares, birds, and griffins, very similar to those seen on Mamluk [Style] metalwork . Created in the 14th Century AD.

Courtesy Of The Scriptorium

Courtesy Of The Scriptorium

The Qalam Pen

The traditional instrument of the Arabic calligrapher is the qalam, a pen made of dried reed; the ink is often in color, and chosen such that its intensity can vary greatly, so that the greater strokes of the compositions can be very dynamic in their effect.

Tools of Arabic Calligraphy
A variety of media were employed for presenting calligraphy. Before the advent of paper, papyrus and parchment were used for writing. The advent of paper revolutionized calligraphy. While monasteries in Europe treasured a few dozen volumes, libraries in the Muslim world regularly contained hundreds and even thousands of volumes of books.
Another media for calligraphy were coins. Beginning in 692, the Islamic caliphate reformed the coinage of the Near East by replacing visual depiction by words. This was especially true for dinars, or gold coins of high value. Generally the coins were inscribed with quotes from the Quran.
By the tenth century, the Persians, who had converted to Islam, began weaving inscriptions on to elaborately patterned silks. So precious were calligraphic inscribed textile, that Crusaders brought them to Europe as prized possessions. A notable example is the Shroud of St. Josse, used to wrap the bones of St. Josse in the abbey of St. Josse-sur-Mer near Caen in northwestern France.

Saint Josse Shroud

Detail from the Saint-Josse shroud, woven silk bearing a Kūfic inscription, 10th century; in the Louvre, Paris. 94 × 52 cm.
Credit: Cliché Musées Nationaux, Paris

Arabic Calli-gram In the Shape of a Bird

Arabic Calli-gram - bird